Andrew Melville, the Church reformer, founder of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, Principal of Glasgow University and St Mary's College, St Andrews, was born. Melville is viewed as the successor to John Knox as the leader of Scottish Protestantism
The inventor of the telephone Alexander Graham Bell died at the age of 75. Alexander was born in Edinburgh on the 3rd March 1847, he emigrated to Canada in 1870 with his parents and then moved on to the United States in 1871 where he eventually made his famous invention along with many others
King James II of Scotland was killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle. James was regarded as one of the better Scottish monarchs of the period, ending the feud between the Livingstons and Crichtons, and finally defeating the rebellious Douglases
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, war minister at the time, began a mass recruiting campaign, three days after Britain declared war on Germany. By the war's end a total of 147,609 Scots had been killed, a fifth of Britain's dead from a country that made up only 10% of its population
King James iv of Scotland married Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry viii of England. The wedding was christened the Marriage of the Thistle and the Rose, and was designed to create stable relations between the two feuding kingdoms. In the coming century it was also to form the basis from which the Stewarts made claim to the English crown
King James III was crowned King of Scotland at Kelso Abbey in the Scottish Boarders at the age of 9. James was the son of King James ii who died unexpectedly and Mary de Gueldres who acted as his Regent in James early years
Thomas Dick Lauder, was born in Edinburgh. He succeeded to the title of 7th Baronet, of Fountainhall and inherited the family estate at Fountainhall near Pencaitland in East Lothian in 1820. He was a writer and a minor member of Scottish nobility
King Robert III was born at Scone Palace. He was originally baptised as John, but in Scotland this was considered an unlucky name for a monarch. Robert was fifty-three when he was crowned on the 14th August 1390. Changing his name does not seem to have helped him any, by the time he actually acceded to the throne he was severely disabled thanks to injuries received from a horse's kick
Sir Walter Scott, poet and novelist, was born in Edinburgh. Scott's was a poet, novelist, ballad-collector. He is probably most renowned as the founder of the genre of the historical novel, involving tales of romance, gallantry and chivalry His first publication in this genre was Waverley in 1814
Elsie Maud Inglis was born in India. Elsie’s parents were originally from Edinburgh. Elsie made her name as a pioneering surgeon and as a suffragette. When war broke out in 1914 Elsie pioneered a medical unit run by women, the 200 bed Scottish Women’s Hospital at Abbaye de Royaumont, was staffed and run solely by women
James Eric Drummond, 16th Earl of Perth, was born. Drummond was a Scottish statesman and diplomat he was mostly known for his role as the First Secretary-General of the League of Nations. Drummond served for fourteen years as Secretary-General between 1919 and 1933
Arthur Elphinstone, Lord Balmerino, the Jacobite noble, was executed. Balmerino was captured along with Lord Kilmarnock after the Battle of Culloden and the pair were tried for treason in London and beheaded in the Tower of London.
James VI, only child of Mary Queen of Scots and her second husband, Lord Darnley married the protestant Princess Anne of Denmark. On returning to Scotland with his new wife he took interest in the trial for witchcraft in North Berwick of a group said to have summoned a storm to try to sink Anne's ship on her first attempt to come to Scotland, and again when he had travelled back with her. James was instrumental in launching a major witch-hunt across Scotland in which, some 1500 witches would be "discovered" and executed.
Princess Margaret, daughter of the future King George VI and Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon, younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II is born at Glamis Castle. She is the first royal princess to be born in Scotland for three centuries.
The Battle of the Standard was fought on this day as part of King David I support for Empress Matilda, daughter of King Henry I and a claimant of the English throne. King David had already twice invaded England in support of Matilda, and had twice between rebuffed by forces loyal to the English King Stephen. This time was to be no more successful as local English militias stopped his army's progress in Yorkshire. These militia forces marched under the banners of the patron saints of their towns, known as standards, and these gave their name to the battle
The trial and execution in London of Sir William Wallace, one-time Outlaw, Freedom Fighter and Guardian of Scotland. Wallace was born around 1272 although the exact date is unknown. There is disagreement about his place of birth with both Elderslie in Renfrewshire and Ellerslie in Ayrshire laying claim to him
King Edward I of England, held a "parliament" at Berwick-Upon-Tweed where all the prominent landowners’ churchmen and burgesses of Scotland were summoned to swear allegiance to Edward and sign the parchments known as the second Ragman Rolls. Many prominent people such as Robert the Bruce declined this second declaration. Despite having signed the first Ragman Roll
The Massacre of Tranent took place, On 28 August a proclamation was drawn up by local people to object to the conscription of Scots into the British Militia, to be used either for controlling their own people or for deployment elsewhere. This Militia Act was presented to Mayor Wight on the 29th. It was first ignored but Later, when a contingent from the local colliery communities, led by 'Jackie' (Joan) Crookston confronted the troops, their response was swift and bloody. Several of the protesters, including Crookston, were shot dead. The protesters who fled were hunted down by the Cinque Port Light Dragoons, who are reported to have cut down people indiscriminately, not caring whether they were involved in the protest or not
Prince Henry, son of King James VI of Scotland and his wife, Anne of Denmark was christened in the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle. Prince Henry died on the 6th November 1612 of Typhoid Fever predeceasing his father King James VI
31st. August 1651
A parliamentary army, later to become the Coldstream Guards was commanded by General George Monck to attack and takes possession of Broughty Castle, Dundee